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Case Number 12243

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The 3 Penny Opera: Criterion Collection

Criterion // 1931 // 110 Minutes // Not Rated
Reviewed by Judge Bill Gibron (Retired) // October 22nd, 2007

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All Rise...

As the old song says, the shark may bite with his pearly white teeth, but it can't be as cutting as this wonderful 1931 version of the Brecht/Weill musical, according to Judge Bill Gibron.

The Charge

The Feel Good, Anti-Fascist Tale of a Thief, His Wife, Her Con Man Father, and the '50s Pop Song that Won't Go Away.

Opening Statement

When Bobby Darin went from teeny-bopper "splish splash" to pseudo-Sinatra swing, he brought along a vampy, jazzy update of an old Louis Armstrong number with him. Reinterpreting the lyrics to give the tune a ring-a-ding-ding kick, and working the Brecht/Weill out of the thing, "Mack the Knife" became the singer's signature song. It hit No. 1 on the Billboard charts, sold a million copies, and went on to win the Grammy for Record of the Year in 1960. Yet few, if any, knew of the original source material. In fact, Dick Clark warned Darin against cutting the track, telling him that if fans ever found out it was taken from an "opera" it would destroy his rock-n-roll cred. Of course, he was wrong, but even today, the 3 Penny title will throw anyone not aware of the legacy behind Bertolt Brecht and Kurt Weill's riotously influential stage work. Indeed, even a modern revival from 2006 featuring Alan Cumming, Jim Dale, and New Wave chanteuse Cyndi Lauper failed to ignite much interest. Perhaps if people had a chance to see G. W. Pabst's brilliant interpretation of the material in his 1931 film, they'd realize how phenomenal The 3 Penny Opera really is. The movie is indeed one of the slyest, most striking masterworks ever.

Facts of the Case

On the day of his wedding, MacHeath, also known as Mackie Messer, otherwise notorious as Mack the Knife, wants everything to be perfect. After all, he is marrying longtime girlfriend Polly Peachum. It's a very advantageous pairing—she's the daughter of an infamous London racketeer who controls the beggar trade and his status as a heel remains intact. Also, he's allowed to carouse and womanize (if only a little) on the side. While finding a preacher willing to enter his literal den of thieves is tough, Messer manages to get hitched. But when Papa Peachum finds out, he is livid. He demands his son-in-law's head, and propositions corrupt police chief (and Messer ally) Tiger Brown to frame the felon. When the lawman initially won't cooperate, Peachum plays his ace. The Queen's Coronation parade is a few days away. If Messer's not in prison and headed to his death, there will be a poverty row rebellion to interrupt the pomp and circumstance. With all sides playing against and into each other, it will take more than treachery and deception to outwit one another. As in any 3 Penny Opera, it's the little things overlooked, and the twists of fate unexpected, that end up counting.

The Evidence

G. W. Pabst's adaptation of Weill and Brecht's 3 Penny Opera is an astounding cinematic experience—like watching M the musical as filtered through a neo-realistic view of silent-film German Expressionism. At first, you feel overwhelmed by the arch, stylized approach to the story. Told by traveling minstrels and lacking the initial elements of explanation and exposition, it immediately tosses us into London's seedy port district, a locale overrun with scum, strumpets, and the scoundrels who take advantage of same. As we are introduced to the main characters—master thief (and murderer) MacHeath/Mackie Messer, his gal pal Polly Peachum, and the various members of the twosome's felonious entourage—and watch the preparations for their soon-to-be grand wedding, we wonder where all of this is going. For many, the 3 Penny is an unknown quantity, a non-traditional songfest that closely resembles the arcane entertainment referenced in the title. Indeed, the first few numbers—including the instantly recognizable "Mack the Knife"—resemble a Wagnerian war against Gilbert and Sullivan. They're more arias and sextets than chorus/melody making. While each one of the drawn-out dirges is packed with psychological subtext and social protest, it all comes across as overblown and obvious. How the movie will manage from this point is anyone's guest.

And then we are introduced to Polly's corrupt father, a man who actually controls and licenses the beggars in the city. No one can work the streets without his permission, and such a setup is instantaneously intriguing. We want to know more and need it ASAP. But the story does something even better. It takes the situation and amplifies it one outstanding step further. Peachum has a list of possible panhandling personas—the cripple, the crazy, the mute, etc.—and candidates can only choose between those that haven't met their citywide or regional quota. In one stellar sequence, a newcomer argues with the fierce Fagan over his employment possibilities. The crass, capitalist way Peachum handles his business, and the ragtag group of street trash that wanders through his door (most merely playing at their pathetic state) gives 3 Penny a wonderful cynical edge. It's clear why Weill and Brecht were attracted to this 18th century ballad opera (which they then updated). In a country just caving into Nationalism and accompanying Nazi power, the concept of corruption within even the most morose of social situations (the homeless as organized con artists) meshed perfectly with their growing political concerns. When we later find out that police chief Tiger Brown is linked to both Messer and Peachum's criminal organizations, it adds fuel to an already foul fire.

And then Act III arrives. Peachum, angry that his daughter has married Messer, wants the hoodlum hanged. He threatens Brown with a peasant riot during the Queen's Coronation if the lawman doesn't frame his unwanted son-in-law and place him before the gallows. While Messer is mired in the court system, he leaves his racket to his bride, and she turns the burglary and pickpocket ring into a legitimized version of the very same enterprise—otherwise known as a bank. Using their newfound status, and an excess of cash, they save Messer and call Peachum's bluff. The result is a mass melee between the peasant class and the upper crust who constantly shun them. As staged brilliantly by director Pabst, this last-act anarchy is unforgettable. A collection of faces both found and fashioned, it speaks volumes about the power in protest while suggesting the senselessness in fighting right with might. Epic in scale if not in visual scope (this was a studio production, limited by the logistics of creating all of London on a soundstage), the clash of classes is then overridden by a last-act truce that speaks more about modern society and who pulls the strings than any movie since, post-modern or otherwise.

When it's all over, when The 3 Penny Opera wraps up its cutting condemnations and finishes with a flourish, we wonder why we ever doubted it. Even the unusual sonic cues and melodious complexity that keeps everything at arms length suddenly seems silly and easily embraceable. Because of the knotty narrative turns, the backdoor wheeling and dealing, and clearly defined criticism of Germany's lax citizenry (it's a similar statement made by Jean Renoir's revelatory Rules of the Game), what started out stark and dated turns timeless and all too telling. Hats off to Austrian Pabst, who channeled fellow greats like Fritz Lang and F. W. Murnau to create an amazing monochrome landscape of shadows and light for the intrigues to play within. He also does a magnificent job of keeping his characters clear and beyond the obvious caricatures. This is especially true of Papa Peachum. One gets the clear impression that a slight amount of anti-Semitism could be present in Weill/Brecht's interpretation of the original character. He sure looks and acts like Shylock from The Merchant of Venice. But thanks to Pabst's careful control of the material, as well as Fritz Rasp's multifaceted performance, all potential racism is avoided. In fact, even though the entire narrative deals with society's most unsavory element, 3 Penny never resorts to such cinematic name calling.

It's safe to say that this ancient allegory, first formulated back in 1728 when Irish satirist Jonathan Swift (Gulliver's Travels) suggested John Gray take up the cause of the downtrodden and disenfranchised, is more potent in 2007 than in pre-World War II Europe. Back then, criminals and lowlifes were a cause for scandal, an unacceptable breed given over to censure and individual exile. While Messer makes a compelling mobster, we are never allowed to forget that he once killed an entire family just for the fun of it. Today, thanks to tabloid television and the 24-hour-a-day news cycle, we semi-celebrate such antisocial heroes. They become the "there but for the grace" grooves that feed our need for holier-than-thou judgment. 3 Penny takes such a sentiment and turns it right back at our self-righteous, sanctimonious faces. It asks us to explain why these kinds of characters are so engaging, and makes us realize that they truly exist in all corridors of power—even in ourselves. Weill and Brecht may have been rebelling against a war-weary nation headed toward a complete totalitarian meltdown, but their musical makes us look at our own lack of action in light of such situations. It places us directly in the line of the poor-person maelstrom, and asks us to question why we still don't care.

Even better, it belies our already staunch cynicism. Everyone thinks the police are corrupt, the wealthy are wicked, the government given over to special interests, and that corporate coffers are lined with white-collar criminality. 3 Penny pushes it all further into farce, suggesting that there's unbridled badness even among the already unlawful. When Polly proudly celebrates the buying of a bank, we see the simple substituting of one racket for another. When Peachum and Messer talk truce, we witness every backroom deal that drives ethics even further from the standard business/legislative model. It's all so very modern and yet locked deep within its Victorian England setting. That it suggests such static history makes for an even more disconcerting entertainment. While you won't be humming its tunes on the way out of the theater—or while removing the DVD from the player—the music is memorable, especially since it easily encapsulates everything we see onscreen. Indeed, The 3 Penny Opera probably plays better on film than in the theater. Live, the inherent ambiguity of the staging can ruin even the greatest writer's intentions. But when pasted to celluloid, the tendencies become timeless, and their motives remain solid and concrete. Over the decades, revivals of the show have been less than successful. Movies remain the best way to experience this classic social commentary.

Criterion delivers yet another stunning, comprehensive digital package as it turns the DVD version of The 3 Penny Opera into a preservationist's paradise. The 1.33:1 full-screen image is excellent, illustrating the company's search for the best print elements possible. There are still some very minor age issues, a small amount of flicker, and a little blurriness in parts, but when compared to the original release, this version is a revelation. It stands as one of Criterion's best. Even better, the Dolby Digital Mono mix is a crystal clear and audibly clean creation. Dialogue is easily discernible, subtitles supplying excellent translations. The musical numbers are a tad tinny, but considering 1930s recording technology (especially from overseas), the results are excellent. As for added content, we are treated to two versions of the film—the initial 1931 German presentation and a simultaneous French adaptation (entitled L'opera de quat'sous). It's interesting to do the standard cinematic compare and contrast. While the leads have been changed (and in one case, definitely not for the better), many in the supporting and extra company stay the same. So do the shot selections and camera angles. While not as powerful as the original, this take on the material is engaging in its own right.

Then there are the other bonus features. The 1931 film has a full-length audio commentary helmed by film experts David Bathrick and Eric Rentschler. The former knows Pabst, the latter understands Brecht. Together, they paint an intriguing portrait of artists at odds over their individual aesthetic. It's a conversation that actually complements the 45-minute documentary that covers the play's controversial leap from stage to silver screen. While some of the information is repeated, the contextual foundation makes it equally enlightening. Disc 1 wraps up with a surreal scripted "introduction" to the film starring Fritz Rasp and Ernst Busch. Created in the late '40s to support a reissue, it's an odd piece of pro-Communist propaganda. Disc 2 dives deeper into the differences between the German and French versions (via a multimedia presentation) and there's an archival interview with Rasp. Add in the standard gallery of production photos and sketches, an accompanying booklet featuring a new essay by Tony Rayns, and you have a wonderful DVD compendium, the record of a unique film and an equally enthralling backstage history.

Closing Statement

As he aged, Bobby Darin tried desperately to battle against the nightclub crooner image his past canon suggested—especially "Mack the Knife." With its showboating structure and hepcat lyricism, even the song's core concept about celebrating a killer was more or less lost on a toe-tapping public. So it's not surprising the troubled troubadour would want some distance between his image and his actual artistic aims. Perhaps all he needed to do was re-explore his trademark tune's real meaning. As murder ballads go, "Mack" has more significance than as a set-list signoff. It establishes the parameters of The 3 Penny Opera while skewering social conventions and depraved personality types vividly. In fact, the entire production resonates with an electricity that contradicts its age and dated dynamics. Most of the credit for the effectiveness of the film version of Brecht and Weill's work must go to Pabst. His picture components lift an obtuse amusement to epic levels, transcending its time and trappings to become a classic social satire. So celebrate the melody all you want. This version of The 3 Penny Opera is what really deserves the kudos.

The Verdict

Not guilty. Criterion easily delivers one of the best DVDs of the year.

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Scales of Justice

Video: 94
Audio: 90
Extras: 95
Acting: 98
Story: 95
Judgment: 96

Perp Profile

Studio: Criterion
Video Formats:
• Full Frame
Audio Formats:
• Dolby Digital 1.0 Mono (French)
• Dolby Digital 1.0 Mono (German)
• English
Running Time: 110 Minutes
Release Year: 1931
MPAA Rating: Not Rated
• Classic
• Concerts and Musicals
• Drama

Distinguishing Marks

• Audio commentary by scholars David Bathrick and Eric Rentschler
• Archival introduction by 3 Penny stars Fritz Rasp and Ernst Busch
• New, exclusive documentary on 3 Penny's controversial journey from stage to screen
• L'opera de quat'sous, Pabst's French-language version of the film, starring Albert Prejean and Florelle
• A multimedia presentation by film scholar Charles O'Brien on the differences between the English and French versions
• Archival interview with Fritz Rasp
• Galleries of production photos by Hans Casparius and production sketches by art director Andre Andrejew
• Booklet with a new essay by film critic Tony Rayns


• IMDb

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